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Exhibit 3-35. Potential Applications for Electrowinning of Metals Identified from the Vendors Survey and Literature

  • Group 1- Includes metals with a high potential for successful application. All metals listed in this group are commonly recovered using electrowinning. Metals in Group 1 are: brass (cyanide), cadmium (cyanide), copper (acid, cyanide), gold (cyanide), silver, (cyanide), zinc (cyanide).
  • Group 2- Includes metals with a high potential for successful application, however, metals listed in this group are less commonly recovered using electrowinning than those in Group 1. Metal in Group 2 are: antimony, cadmium (ammonium sulfate), iridium, lead (acid), palladium, ruthenium, rhodium, selenium, tin (acid, alkaline)
  • Group 3- Includes metals with a moderate potential for successful application. May require chemical adjustment of the electrolyte or special equipment (e.g., unusual anodes). Metal in Group 3 are: cobalt, copper (electroless, strong acid, ammononical etches), gold (strip), indium, lead (fluoborate), nickel (Watts, woods, sulfamate, electroless), silver (thiosulfate), tin-lead (fluoborate), zinc (acid)
  • Group 4- Low potential for success. No known instances of use. Metals in Group 4 are: aluminum, barium, beryillium, boron, calcium, cadmium (strip), chromium, iron, magniesium, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, silicon, tantalum, titanium, tungsten, vandium

Sources: ref. 99, vendor files

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