Pollution Prevention and Control Technologies for Plating
Section 4 - Chemical Solution Maintenance
4.6 ION TRANSFER
4.6.7 Operational and Maintenance Experience
The following summarizes the respondent's O&M experiences
and provides operating labor information.
- The average number of labor hours for ion transfer usage was:
148 hrs/yr. The skill category most commonly needed for operating
this technology is a plater or common labor. The following is
a breakdown of the responses for skill requirements:
Environmental Engineer: 0
Process/Chemical Engineer: 0
Plumber/Pipe Fitter: 0
Senior-Level Plater: 4
Junior Level Plater: 3
Wastewater Treatment Operator: 1
Trained Technician: 2
Common Labor: 3
- In general, the commercial ion transfer equipment used for
chromium bath maintenance requires little maintenance, has a relatively
small downtime and a relatively long equipment life.
- The porous pot technology is free of complex mechanical operational
and maintenance problems due to its simple design and lack of
moving parts. For the in-tank units, the following O&M items
were identified by survey respondents:
- Liquid and sludge must be removed from the pots periodically
(range of frequency was 1 day to 1 week) (ref. PS 006, PS 062,
PS 194, PS 074, PS 080, PS 118).
- Unit must be dismantled and cleaned every week (PS 021).
- The ceramic pots are fragile and/or must be periodically replaced
due to breakage (PS 006, PS 062).
- The unit must be removed from the tank during idle plating
times and/or it is difficult to move from tank to tank (PS 062,
- Requires frequent observation to assure proper operation (PS
- Use of technology causes catalysts to become unbalanced (PS
- Unit consumes plating tank space (PS 062).
- Only one of the respondents to the Users Survey used a multiple-porous
pot unit. This respondent reported pot breakage to be an O&M
problem. Similar experience is found in the literature (ref. 372).
- Users of the polyfluorocarbon membrane units for bath maintenance
and chromium recovery reported that equipment replacement was
frequently necessary and expensive (PS 194, PS 134).
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