Pollution Prevention and Control Technologies for Plating
Section 4 - Chemical Solution Maintenance
4.8 DIFFUSION DIALYSIS
4.8.4 Technology/Equipment Description
18.104.22.168 Commercially Available Equipment
Diffusion dialysis equipment resembles that of other membrane
technologies such as electrodialysis. These units are designed
with a stacked membrane configuration. A "membrane stack"
consists of a number of thin membrane compartments created by
alternating layers of ion-specific membranes and spacers. The
spacers are present to permit solutions (i.e., contaminated acid
and DI water) to flow between the membrane layers. The membranes
and flow spacers are held together by a cell frame and clamping
unit, giving the membrane stack the appearance of a plate and
frame filter press (ref. 252, Kinetic Recovery Corporation file).
The commercial diffusion dialysis units usually employ co-polymer
membranes of polystyrene and divinylben-zene. These units permit
the diffusion of highly disassociated acids through the polymer
structure while cations (metals) remain behind because of their
positive electrical charge. The mass transfer through the membrane
was described by Reinhard (ref. 252) as:
jn = K x A x Cn
where, jn is the overall transport rate of solute n,
Cn is the average solute concentration difference between the
A is the membrane area, and
K is the overall rate constant (dialysis coefficient).
The proper average solute (acid) concentration difference is the
logarithmic mean of the inlet and outlet differences. The dialysis
coefficient is a function of: (1) chemical characteristics of
the acid; (2) concentration of the acid; (3) chemical characteristics
of the salt; and (4) temperature of liquid (ref. 252).
The temperature of the feed appears to be a significant variable.
One vendor indicates that a temperature drop of 3.6 °F (2.0°
C) will reduce the recycling rate by approximately 1.5%. The membranes
can typically withstand temperatures up to 122°F (50°C).
They also indicate that heating of the feed stream may be required
for winter operation (ref. Kinetic Recovery Corporation file).
The diffusion dialysis technology is commercially available in
a wide range of capacities. Existing systems were identified with
inlet acid flows ranging from 100 gpd to 2,000 gpd (ref. 192,
22.214.171.124 Commercial Equipment
This subsection contains a description of commercially available
diffusion dialysis equipment that is manufactured and/or sold
by Vendor Survey respondents. This is intended to provide the
reader with information and data on a cross section of available
equipment. Mention of trade names or commercial products is not
intended to constitute endorsement for use.
Kinetic Recovery Corporation markets a series of diffusion dialysis
units that have been used in Germany and Sweden for more than
two years on the following applications: HNO3/HF (stainless steel);
H2SO4/HCl (zinc or aluminum); H2SO4/HNO3 (zinc or aluminum); H2SO4
(iron or zinc); and HCl (iron or zinc). They have also tested
a unit at United Technologies on a HNO3/HF (titanium). Each of
their systems are custom made and include: tanks for acid and
DI water; level controls; membrane stack, internal plumbing and
connections to tanks; automatic valves; feed pump; cartridge filter;
and control panel. The units are skid mounted and factory assembled.
The normal range of capacities is from 30 to 415 gpd of acid feed.
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